tailieunhanh - Báo cáo khoa học: "LFG Semantics via Constraints"

Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Traditionally, meanings are combined via function composition, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. More recently, the functional structure of LFG has been used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. . | LFG Semantics via Constraints Mary Dalrymple John Lamping Vijay Saraswat dalrymple lamping saraswat @ Xerox PARC 3333 Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Abstract Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Traditionally meanings are combined via function composition which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. More recently the functional structure of LFG has been used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult however to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function composition. In contrast to compositional approaches we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings based on reasoning with constraints which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a glue for assembling meanings also allows for a coherent treatment of modification as well as of the LFG requirements of completeness and coherence. 1 Introduction In languages like English the substantial scaffolding provided by surface constituent structure trees is often a useful guide for semantic composition and the À-calculus is a convenient formalism for assembling the semantics along that scaffolding Montague 1974 . This is because the derivation of the meaning of a phrase can often be viewed as mirroring the surface constituent structure of the English phrase. The sentence Bill kissed Hillary has the surface constituent structure indicated by the bracketing in 1 1 s np Bill vp kissed Np Hillary The verb is viewed as bearing a close syntactic relation to the object and forming a constituent with it this constituent then combines with the subject of the sentence. Similarly the meaning of the .

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