Biological micro organisms are important to maintain a productive soil. Energy crops usually support a more diverse microbial population than typical agricultural row crops. Some studies suggest that energy crops change the agricultural land biota to the ones quite similar to forest environment. Increased soil carbon, more consistent soil moisture, lower soil temperature (due to proper cover) help in the restoration of the agricultural land biota. Soil erosion may result in degradation of soil structure, loss of essential organic matter, nutrients, reduced water retention and nutrient retention capacity. Energy plantations can in some cases reduce the harmful effects of soil erosion, by serving as a protective cover for the soil top layer from phenomena such as blow off. Energy crops with heavy root systems can absorb large quantities of water, thereby preventing soil erosion by water tillage and aid in keeping the top layer of the soil intact. . | THE ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN PULPING PROCESS OF NON-WOOD FIBERS Waranyou Sridach Received Dec 16 2009 Revised Mar 11 2010 Accepted Mar 15 2010 Abstract The increasing demand for paper has raised the need for low-cost raw materials and also for the development of new process in order to boost production. Non-wood fibers for example agricultural residues and annual plants are considered an effective alternative source of cellulose for producing pulp and paper sheets with acceptable properties. This paper reviews some physical and chemical properties of non-wood pulps which have effects on the making of paper. The less polluting pulping processes that use organic solvents are of interest for pulp production. The delignification of the Organosolv pulping process depends on the type of Organosolv methods and cellulosic sources used. The chemicals and cooking conditions such as the catalysts solvent concentration cooking temperature cooking time and liquor to raw material ratio all influence the properties of the pulp and paper. Keywords Non-wood fiber organosolv alcohol pulping solvent-based pulping delignification Introduction Pulp and paper production is one of the high demand sectors in the world of industrial production. The total global consumption from paper-making was projected to increase from 316 million tons in 1999 and 351 million tons in 2005 to about 425 million tons by 2010 García et al. 2008 . Progress in pulp and paper technology has overcome most of the related environmental problems. The environmental problems have brought forth the cleaner technology now involved in paper making. New raw materials have replaced traditional wood raw materials with non-wood and residual materials and less polluting cooking and pulp bleaching processes have been evolved. Cleaner technology is applied to achieve increased production with minimum effect on the environment and to save utilize and recycle expensive and scarce chemicals and raw materials. This technology is .

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