tailieunhanh - an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations phần 7

Kể từ khi cải cách của một đồng xu vàng, nó đã được ủng hộ của London, ngay cả với những nơi đó. Việc trao đổi tính toán đã được ủng hộ của London với Lisbon, Antwerp, Leghorn, và, nếu bạn ngoại trừ Pháp, tôi tin rằng, với hầu hết các bộ phận khác của châu Âu trả tiền chung, | The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith way seem to be the two great causes of the prosperity of all new colonies. 1245 17 In the plenty of good land the English colonies of North America though no doubt very abundantly provided are however inferior to those of the Spaniards and Portuguese and not superior to some of those possessed by the French before the late war. But the political institutions of the English colonies have been more favourable to the improvement and cultivation of this land than those of any of the other three nations. 1246 18 First the engrossing of uncultivated land though it has by no means been prevented altogether has been more restrained in the English colonies than in any other. The colony law which imposes upon every proprietor the obligation of improving and cultivating within a limited time a certain proportion of his lands and which in case of failure declares those neglected lands grantable to any other person though it has not perhaps been very strictly executed has however had some effect. 1247 19 Secondly in Pennsylvania there is no right of primogeniture and lands like movables are divided equally among all the children of the family. In three of the provinces of New England the oldest has only a double share as in the Mosaical law. Though in those provinces therefore too great a quantity of land should sometimes be engrossed by a particular individual it is likely in the course of a generation or two to be sufficiently divided again. In the other English colonies indeed the right of primogeniture takes place as in the law of England. But in all the English colonies the tenure of the lands which are all held by free socage facilitates alienation and the grantee of any extensive tract of land generally finds it for his interest to alienate as fast as he can the greater part of it reserving only a small quit-rent. In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies what is called the right of Majorazzo1 takes place in the succession of all those great