tailieunhanh - an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations phần 4

bằng khoảng mười shilling tiền hiện tại của chúng tôi, giá mà chúng ta tìm thấy nó ước tính vào đầu của thế kỷ thứ mười sáu, và có vẻ như vẫn tiếp tục được ước tính đến khoảng 1570. Năm 1350, là ngày 25 của Edward III, được ban hành những gì được gọi là Điều lệ của Người lao động. | The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith 644 23 645 24 646 25 647 26 648 27 649 28 cabinet-maker the goldsmith the jeweller the china-merchant etc. The circulating capital consists in this manner of the provisions materials and finished work of all kinds that are in the hands of their respective dealers and of the money that is necessary for circulating and distributing them to those who are finally to use or to consume them. Of these four parts three provisions materials and finished work are either annually or in a longer or shorter period regularly withdrawn from it and placed either in the fixed capital or in the stock reserved for immediate consumption. Every fixed capital is both originally derived from and requires to be continually supported by a circulating capital. All useful machines and instruments of trade are originally derived from a circulating capital which furnishes the materials of which they are made and the maintenance of the workmen who make them. They require too a capital of the same kind to keep them in constant repair. No fixed capital can yield any revenue but by means of a circulating capital. The most useful machines and instruments of trade will produce nothing without the circulating capital which affords the materials they are employed upon and the maintenance of the workmen who employ them. Land however improved will yield no revenue without a circulating capital which maintains the labourers who cultivate and collect its produce. To maintain and augment the stock which may be reserved for immediate consumption is the sole end and purpose both of the fixed and circulating capitals. It is this stock which feeds clothes and lodges the people. Their riches or poverty depends upon the abundant or sparing supplies which those two capitals can afford to the stock reserved for immediate consumption. So great a part of the circulating capital being continually withdrawn from it in order to be placed in the other two branches of the general stock of