tailieunhanh - an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations phần 2

Chúng tôi làm cho một số giả định về tính đàn hồi của nhu cầu, một số giả định liên quan đến các chức năng chi phí, thể hiện trong biểu đồ bình thường, và chúng tôi cùng một lúc có thể đọc, | The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith 200 44 while the society is advancing to the further acquisition rather than when it has acquired its full complement of riches that the condition of the labouring poor of the great body of the people seems to be the happiest and the most comfortable. It is hard in the stationary and miserable in the declining state. The progressive state is in reality the cheerful and the hearty state to all the different orders of the society. The stationary is dull the declining melancholy. The liberal reward of labour as it encourages the propagation so it increases the industry of the common people. The wages of labour are the encouragement of industry which like every other human quality improves in proportion to the encouragement it receives. A plentiful subsistence increases the bodily strength of the labourer and the comfortable hope of bettering his condition and of ending his days perhaps in ease and plenty animates him to exert that strength to the utmost. Where wages are high accordingly we shall always find the workmen more active diligent and expeditious than where they are low in England for example than in Scotland in the neighbourhood of great towns than in remote country places. Some workmen indeed when they can earn in four days what will maintain them through the week will be idle the other three. This however is by no means the case with the greater part. Workmen on the contrary when they are liberally paid by the piece are very apt to overwork themselves and to ruin their health and constitution in a few years. A carpenter in London and in some other places is not supposed to last in his utmost vigour above eight years. Something of the same kind happens in many other trades in which the workmen are paid by the piece as they generally are in manufactures and even in country labour wherever wages are higher than ordinary. Almost every class of artificers is subject to some peculiar infirmity occasioned by excessive application