Lấy mẫu và Khảo sát bức xạ môi trường Các môi trường thường yêu cầu lấy mẫu phóng xạ, đo lường trực tiếp, và / hoặc quét bao gồm những người liên quan với các khu mỏ uranium, các cơ sở sản xuất vũ khí hạt nhân, lò phản ứng hạt nhân, lưu trữ chất thải phóng xạ và các cơ sở xử lý, và các khu vực trong vùng lân cận của tai nạn hạt nhân. Mục tiêu chủ yếu, lấy mẫu, đo trực tiếp, và / hoặc quét được thực hiện trong môi trường này bao gồm những điều. | CHAPTER 4 Sampling and Surveying Radiological Environments Environments that frequently require radiological sampling direct measurements and or scanning include those associated with uranium mine sites nuclear weapons production facilities nuclear reactors radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities and areas in the vicinity of nuclear accidents. The primary objectives of sampling direct measurements and or scanning performed in these environments include the following Defining the nature and extent of contamination Evaluating contaminant migration pathways Predicting rates of contaminant migration Assessing the risk to human health and the environment Evaluating cleanup alternatives Determining whether or not remedial action or decontamination and decommissioning objectives have been met Dispositioning of the waste material. One of the objectives of this chapter is to provide the reader with guidance on how to design cost-effective sampling programs that are both comprehensive and defensible. This guidance emphasizes the use of the EPA s Data Quality Objectives DQO process EPA 1994a to assist in the development of defensible sampling programs that meet all the sampling objectives. The DQO process requires one to state the problem clearly identify the decisions that need to be resolved identify inputs needed to resolve those decisions specify data quality requirements . precision accuracy detection limits define the temporal and spatial boundaries that apply to the study define error tolerances . false positive false negative width of gray region and develop a sampling design that meets these requirements. This chapter presents details on several useful statistical sample design software packages guidance to assist the writing of a Sampling and Analysis Plan and details on the most effective radiological scanning direct measurements and environmental media sampling methods available to support environmental studies. 61 2001 by CRC Press LLC 62 SAMPLING