Bức xạ và phóng xạ Mục đích của chương này là cung cấp cho người đọc với các nguyên tắc cơ bản của phóng xạ, bức xạ, và phát hiện bức xạ. Ô nhiễm phóng xạ trong môi trường là mối quan tâm đối với sức khỏe con người bởi vì, nếu không kiểm soát được, gây ô nhiễm có thể dẫn đến tác dụng có hại cho sức khỏe như ung thư. Các tương tác giữa bức xạ và cơ thể con người chủ yếu là va chạm giữa các bức xạ "hạt" và nguyên tử. Những va chạm này. | CHAPTER 3 Radiation and Radioactivity The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with the fundamentals of radioactivity radiation and radiation detection. Radiological contamination in the environment is of concern to human health because if left uncontrolled the contamination could lead to adverse health effects such as cancer. The interactions between radiation and the human body are essentially collisions between radiation particles and atoms. These collisions produce damage mostly by knocking electrons from their atomic orbit or leaving atoms in an energized state resulting in additional radioactivity. The trail of destruction produced by the radiation particle is on the atomic scale but may be sufficient to damage or kill cells in human tissue. The same interactions that produce adverse health effects may be used to locate and quantify radiological contamination in the environment. That is collisions between a radiation particle and atoms could occur in a radiation detector leading to a response such as displacing a needle or producing an electronic pulse. The magnitude of cell damage or the characteristics of the detector response depend on the type and origin source of the radiation. Radiation comes in many physical forms and from a range of sources. The types or forms of radiation of most interest originate as emission from an unstable nucleus or an excited atom. These emissions of radiation include various combinations of energetic electrons protons and neutrons alpha particles and beta particles and electromagnetic radiation gamma rays and X rays . There are also more exotic radiation particles such as muons pions neutrinos etc. that are less relevant when considering environmental contamination. Sources of radiation include rock and soil primordial sources nuclear reactors high-energy particle accelerators manufactured material etc. anthropogenic sources and outer space cosmic radiation . The type and source of radiation must be taken into .