tailieunhanh - Reservoir Formation Damage Episode 2 Part 7

Tham khảo tài liệu 'reservoir formation damage episode 2 part 7', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả | 382 Reservoir Formation Damage Characteristics of Asphaltenic Oils As indicated by Figure 14-1 by Philp et al. 1995 the boiling and melting points of hydrocarbons increase by the carbon number. Heavy crude oils contain large quantities of higher boiling components which create problems during oil production Speight 1996 . Speight and Long 1996 point out that chemical and physical alteration of oils may affect the dispersibility and compatibility of their higher molecular weight fractions and create various problems such as phase separation precipitation and sludge formation during the various phases of petroleum production transportation and processing. Speight 1996 classified the constituents of the crude oil into four hydrocarbon groups 1 volatile saturates paraffins and aromatics 2 nonvolatile saturates waxes and aromatics 3 resins and 4 asphaltenes. Speight 1996 explains that the nomenclature of the petroleum fractions such as given in Figure 14-2 is based on the techniques of separation of the crude oil into its fractions. Figure 14-3 by Leontaritis 1997 describes the various steps and techniques involved Figure 14-1. Effect of n-alkane carbon number on boiling and melting point temperatures after Philp R. p. Bishop A. N. Del Rio . and Allen J. Cubitt J. M. and England w. A. eds. Geological Society Special Publication No. 86 pp. 71-85 1995 reprinted by permission of R. p. Philp and the Geological Society Publishing House . Formation Damage by Organic Deposition 383 Figure 14-2. Classification of petroleum constituents based on laboratory fractionation reprinted from Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering Vol. 22 Speight J. G. The Chemical and Physical Structure of Petroleum Effects on Recovery Operations pp. 3-15 1999 with permission from Elsevier Science . in the analysis of the crude oil including cryoscopic distillation CD solvent extraction SE gas chromatography GC high performance liquid chromatography HPLC and gel permeation chromatography GPC