tailieunhanh - Radionuclide Concentrations in Foor and the Environment - Chapter 11

Chương trình bảo vệ bức xạ phấn đấu để ngăn chặn hoặc giảm thiểu tác hại các nguồn bức xạ cho những cá nhân trong phòng thí nghiệm liên quan đến phân tích phóng xạ trong thực phẩm và môi trường. Nguồn bức xạ vốn có các quá trình phân tích và thủ tục bao gồm ion hóa dạng sóng, hạt bức xạ, và thường xuyên nonionizing bức xạ. Các nguồn bức xạ ion hóa có thể được sử dụng như tiêu chuẩn đóng gói hiệu chuẩn của các thiết bị đếm trong các hình thức phân tán cho radiolabeling hoặc các thủ tục tiêu chuẩn. | 11 Radiation Protection Programs R. J. Emery and M. A. Charlton CONTENTS Preexposure Laboratory Exposure Controls. 373 Supplemental INTRODUCTION Radiation protection programs strive to prevent or minimize the harmful effects of radiation sources for those individuals in laboratories involved with the analysis of radioactivity in food and the environment. Sources of radiation inherent to these analytical processes and procedures include ionizing waveforms particulate radiation and frequently nonionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation may be used as encapsulated standards for the calibration of counting equipment or in dispersible forms for radiolabeling or internal standardization procedures. Ionizing radiation may also be encountered in the form of radiation producing devices such as analytical x-ray machines electron microscopes or x-ray diffraction devices. Sources of nonionizing radiation in particular high-energy lasers are also increasingly being used in analytical devices. The unknown analytical sample in the lab may also contain radioactivity. Samples of food and environmental media contain myriad radionuclides in variable concentrations stemming from natural sources or from environmental releases. With all of these different types of sources that might be present in any analytical lab and the various pathways for potential exposure the development of a vigilant radiation protection program to protect the health of the individuals associated with the lab activities is considered to be a necessity. 367 2007 by Taylor Francis Group LLC 368 Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment Laboratory safety programs may be considered integral to an overall philosophy of quality control and improvement. A robust safety program prevents contamination promotes laboratory hygiene .