tailieunhanh - How the Japanese Learn to Work 2nd edition phần 4

Trong lối diễn đạt thân mật, đôi khi trợ từ -no được thêm vào thay vì “ka” để biểu thị một sự quan tâm cá nhân của người nói : Dōshite konai-no? "Sao (mày) lại không đến?". Một vài câu hỏi được tạo ra chỉ đơn giản bằng cách đề cập chủ đề với một ngữ điệu nghi vấn để tạo ra sự chú ý của người nghe: Kore-wa? "(Thế còn) điều này?"; Namae-wa? "Tên (của bạn là gì)?". | Vocational streams 43 total. Gender-typing is marked. Boys predominate in the industrial girls in the business courses. About 3 per cent of vocational school pupils are on four-year part-time evening courses. They were established for youngsters who could not afford to be out of the labour market and full-time-working youth once made up a large part of their clientele. Some were established by or in co-operation with groups of local manufacturers for the 15-year-olds they recruited from rural areas and housed in their factory dormitories some indeed still survive in that form. But increasingly they are the last resort of the children who cannot get a full-time place in a public high school in areas where they are scarce and who cannot afford to go to a private spill-over school nor often manage to get a full-time job either. Some manage an early transfer to a full-time school place others get a job these schools are obvious places for employers to come recruiting and may or may not keep up with their studies. Proportions graduating from the part-time as well as from among the 133 000 registered for correspondence courses are not high. Rohlen s Japan s High Schools 1984 describes graphically the somewhat dispiriting atmosphere of one such school. SPECIALIZATIONS Vocational high school courses are quite specialized. Among the industry-related courses the most common specializations are machinery electricity electronics architecture and civil engineering but other more specialized courses include automobile repair metalwork textiles interior furnishings design printing precision machinery radio communication and welding. New courses in primarily the hardware of information technology are expanding and the Advisory Council which oversees these schools recommended a new course in mechatronics the Japanese word for devices using sensors and transducers which involve both electronic and mechanical processes . In terms of hensachi entrance points the most difficult courses

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