tailieunhanh - Ebook Nursing laboratory and diagnostic tests demystified: Part 2

(BQ) Part 2 book “Nursing laboratory and diagnostic tests demystified” has contents: Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scan, ultrasound scan, cardiovascular tests and procedures , female and maternity tests and procedures, and other contents. | chapte r 12 Computed Tomography Scan L EARNING OB JE C TIVES 1 Full-Body CT Scan 2 CT Scan of the Head 3 CT Scan of the Spine 303 Keogh 303 08/04/17 1:21 PM 304 N U R S I N G L A B O R ATO R Y A N D D I A G N O S T I C T E S T S DeMYS TiFieD KEY WORDS Computed tomography Contrast material CT myelogram Intrathecal space Intrathecally Intravenous pyelogram Iodine dye Kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) Positron emission tomograph (PET) Shellfish allergy Temporomandibular disorder A computed tomography (CT, CAT) scan is a radiology imaging test that creates detailed images of structures within the body using a doughnut-shaped X-ray machine. The patient lies within the doughnut-shaped scanner and an X-ray beam rotates around him/her creating an image that represents a thin slice of him/her. Each rotation takes less than 1 second. All sliced images are stored on a computer. The computer is used to reassemble sliced images of the patient enabling the healthcare provider to identify any abnormalities. Typically, the healthcare provider will print the image of any slices that indicate an abnormality, which is then saved with the patient’s chart. The patient may be administered contrast material such as iodine dye. The contrast material makes structures within the patient’s body stand out on the computer by differentiating them with white, black, and shades of gray. Contrast material is administered intravenously or into joints or cavities of the body. The patient may also be asked to ingest other kinds of contrast material. A CT scan may be used for staging cancer to assess if the cancer has spread to other sites in the body. CT scans are also used to identify masses or tumors, as well as fluid and the infection process. CT scans guide the healthcare provider when performing a procedure such as a biopsy. You will learn about different types of CT scans in this chapter. 1.  Full-Body CT Scan A full-body CT scan creates an image of the